Parts of a Computer and Their Functions

What is a Computer?

A computer is a device that is meant to calculate, store, and reproduce data. The most important parts are the CPU, which performs calculations; the RAM, which stores data in short-term memory; the hard drive, which stores data over long periods of time; and the motherboard, which connects all these parts together.

A PC is the most common type of computer. If you’re just starting out with computers, you’ll need to know about Hardware and Software – the two major components of a PC. The hardware includes the motherboard, CPU, RAM, storage devices, monitors, power supply unit, graphics card, keyboard, and mouse. All of these components are essential to your PC’s performance. The software consists of operating systems like Windows or Linux distributions.

Technology has made life easier than ever. One of the most important tools in someone’s life is their personal computer or laptop. A typical PC has many parts inside, including the power supply, motherboard, CPU, hard drive, graphics card, and more.

Together these parts allow users to surf the web, work on spreadsheets, watch movies and so much more. The specific parts of a PC are important because they give it capabilities that other devices can’t provide.

Computer System
Computer System

More about Computer

A PC is an electronic device that provides a variety of tasks to its users. It can be used for entertainment, education, and advanced personal work. There are many parts that make up a high-quality computer system.

The CPU or Central Processing Unit is the brain of the machine, while the motherboard provides support for all other components. The power supply provides electricity to all the parts found inside the computer case so they can function properly.

Computers are marvels of modern technology. They can do almost anything, but some parts are more important than others. The CPU is the brain of the computer and handles all the calculations while generating images on the monitor or television screen.

The keyboard or mouse is used to control what appears on the screen. Different keys on the keyboard let us type out words on a piece of paper that appears on the screen.

Three important parts of computer Hardware, Software, and peripherals. In this article, we are only discussing the hard part of computers.

Computer hardware is the physical components of a computer system, whereas software is the programs and data that run on those physical components. Peripherals are additional hardware devices such as printers and keyboards, which can be connected to a computer.

The article will educate readers who are interested in learning more about their new PC. It will discuss the most important parts of a PC and what they do.

Computers are an essential part of modern life. It is important to know what parts of a computer are the most important. The external part is known as the Case or Cabinet (Chasis). The case needs to be durable, able to take pressure from being stacked, and have room for ventilation so that all components can stay cool.

Inside the case, there are typically three different types of devices: the motherboard, power supply, and disk drive. There are many different parts to a computer and each part serves a specific function. The most important parts of a PC that need to be looked at for quality before purchasing include the following:

  • Computer Case
  • Processor – CPU – Central Processing Unit
  • Motherboard
  • PSU – Power Supply Unit
  • RAM – Random Access Memory
  • Hard Drive / Solid State Drive (SSD)
  • GPU – Graphics Processing Unit
  • Monitor – Display Unit
  • Mouse and Keyboard

From these parts alone, you will be able to determine what functions your PC can perform based on what you need it for.

When buying a new desktop or laptop, it should be important to know what you are looking for. The most important part of a computer is the CPU. The CPU is the brain of the computer and dictates how well it can process information. Another important component of a PC is RAM, which stands for Random Access Memory.

In order to function well, a PC needs a few key parts. These include the hard drive, motherboard, power supply unit, and video card. Each part serves a specific function that allows the computer to work correctly.

The hard drive is where the computer stores all of its data. The motherboard is what connects all of the other pieces together and allows them to communicate with each other. The power supply provides power to the other parts so they can function properly. So, it’s time to see each component of the computer in a detail.

Physical Parts That Make Up a Computer System

Many people today use a computer to do their work, communicate with friends, and play games. In order to understand how a computer operates, it is important to know the four major parts that make up a typical PC: the CPU (Central Processing Unit), RAM (Random Access Memory), hard drive, motherboard and etc.

  1. The CPU functions as the brains of the computer and it controls how fast and in what order data is processed. It also handles input/output operations such as reading from or writing to the disk drives. A modern-day processor can be found on most desktop computers.
  2. Random-access memory (RAM) is used for the temporary storage of information while your program runs. This includes variables you use during execution, instructions being executed by the CPU, and any other data needed at runtime. Most PCs have 1-4 GB of RAM installed.
  3. Hard Drive – this is where all your files are stored. You may have a hard drive that’s internal to your PC called “C:” which stands for Compatible. Or you might have an external USB hard drive connected via FireWire or Thunderbolt cable. The latter two types will look like standard thumb drives with a power plug instead of a flat round connector.
  4. Optical Disk Drives: These days optical disks include CDs/DVDs but also Blu-ray discs. They’re used in place of floppy drives because they store more information than floppies can hold (about 700 MB). Some computers still come with CD/DVD drives built into them while others don’t. If yours doesn’t then it’ll be available as an add-on option from most computer stores.

Computer Case

The PC case is the box that holds all of the components of a modern-day personal computer. The case protects the components from dust and airborne molecules which can lead to overheating.

It also provides cool air into the system by using fans built-in. The simpler cases are called tin boxes because they were constructed out of the tin before plastics became more common for this purpose; these do not provide as much cooling as their metal counterparts.

Today’s computers have many different types of cases available in various sizes and shapes. Some cases come with an integrated power supply unit (PSU) while others require one to be purchased separately.

Computer Case
Computer Case

Processor – CPU- Central Processing Unit

A PC has many parts and one of the most important is its processor. The processor is the brain of the PC and is responsible for processing all the data and commands it receives from other parts of the computer.

When you start your PC, the CPU starts working to perform tasks and solve problems. The CPU is responsible for receiving input, processing it, and providing output in the form of web pages, pictures, videos, and games.

The CPU does computation and processing for the entire system. Many people believe the CPU is the most important part of a computer because it’s what does all the computation and processing for the entire system.

The CPU is different from other components in that it is an active component – which means it’s constantly running programs. It can do so because it has its own clock, memory, and input/output ports. These are called peripherals or I/O devices.

The CPU is connected to other components by buses, which are pathways that allow data to flow in and out of the processor. Buses connect the CPU with RAM (Random Access Memory), ROM (Read Only Memory), Input-Output Ports(IOPs). A bus also connects the CPU with the mainboard itself.

The first thing we need to know about processors is how they work. They use electrical signals called electrons to process information. These are sent through tiny wires on the motherboard which connect them together in order to form circuits.

The CPU is the main component of a computer but it cannot do its job alone. It needs help from other components such as RAM, hard drive, motherboard, etc.

CPU - Central Processing Unit
CPU – Central Processing Unit


The motherboard is the most important part of a computer because it handles all the functions. A motherboard consists of slots for peripheral devices to the plugin, memory modules, ports for joysticks and controllers, graphics processors for video output, and one or more CPUs to carry out the computing tasks.

The CPU takes input from various system programs and processes it. It then outputs the result to other parts of the system. A power supply provides power to the motherboard so that the CPU can function correctly.

Motherboard Base Plate
Motherboard Base Plate

Motherboards are usually designed with multiple sockets (or connectors) on them to allow users to add additional components such as hard drives, optical discs, network cards, sound cards, etc., depending upon their needs.

Computer Motherboard
Computer Motherboard

PSU – Power Supply Unit

A power supply unit (PSU) is an important part of any PC because it supplies electrical current to components. It’s also one of the cheapest parts you can buy.

Consumers should be aware that the higher the wattage, the more expensive the PSU will be. A rule of thumb is to get a unit with 400 watts or less for home use and 1,000 watts or less for professional applications.

The most common type of PSUs is ATX units which provide two 6-pin connectors on each side of the case. These allow users to connect up to six devices at once such as monitors, hard drives, optical drives, etc.

PSU - Power Supply Unit
PSU – Power Supply Unit

RAM – Random Access Memory

RAM, short for Random Access Memory, is a type of computer data storage that stores data and instructions temporarily as it is being used.

In a PC, RAM is accessed much more quickly than the hard drive which means it’s able to load programs more quickly and allow users to work more efficiently. The amount of memory in your system will determine how many applications you can run at once without slowing down or freezing up.

RAM - Random Access Memory
RAM – Random Access Memory

Hard Drive / Solid State Drive (SSD)

If your information is not backed up and you lose your computer, you will lose all the information you have put into it. The hard drive is the main part of a PC and it stores the operating system and all of our data.

The hard disk drive (HDD) of the computer is the place where data and information is stored permanently, Such as documents, databases, spreadsheets, and programs are all stored on the hard disk.

Our computers need a hard drive in order to store programs and files which are essential for our work. If we have lost our hard drive, we will have to replace it with a new one if we want to access any of that data or program again.

Hard drives are slower and are being replaced by better, durable, and faster SSDs that are made up of flash memory. These devices are available in various sizes to suit different needs.

To know more about SSD, see our articles What is SSD? and SSD VS HDD

HDD - Hard Disk Drive
HDD – Hard Disk Drive

GPU – Graphic Card

Graphics cards are usually installed on the motherboard of a computer. Graphics cards provide visual aids like images and animations on your monitor. They are often found in gaming computers to give you the best visuals possible.

Graphics card has their own RAM and processor that helps speed up the graphics display. That ensures high display capabilities.

Cords are also needed for this card to work properly. The card will transmit data from the motherboard of your computer to your monitor so you can view images more clearly.

Graphics cards are an essential part of the PC, but they do vary in cost. They are necessary because they are what process video games, movies, and other content.

These devices have to be chosen carefully in order to get one that suits the user’s needs. There are many different types of graphic cards available on the market today. Some examples include Gigabyte GeForce GTX 1050 Ti Graphics Cards, Sapphire Radeon RX 460 Graphics Cards, etc.

GPU - Graphics Processing Unit
GPU – Graphics Processing Unit

Monitor – Display Unit

A monitor is an output device that transfers the computer’s signal to a display screen that the user can see. It is used for viewing text, images, and videos. Monitors can be classified by their size, input signal type, and graphics technologies.

There are different kinds of monitors. But we are not discussing this in this article. Soon we will present types of monitors in our other article.

Monitor – Display Unit

Mouse and Keyboard

Every computer needs input to process it and convert it into output. To give input and commands to the computer mouse and keyboard are used. The mouse is called a pointing device which is used to control a pointer on the screen. By controlling and using the pointer we select the icon and issue a command.

A keyboard is an input device that is used to input data that is required for processing. A standard keyboard has 101 keys on it. Every key has hidden command. When the key is pressed on the keyboard, it issues a command or transfers data.

Mouse and Keyboard
Mouse and Keyboard


Computers are made up of different components, each with its own unique function. This article has discussed the basics of how computers work in order to help readers understand their value in society.

The computer is an amazing invention that has changed the world in many ways. It can be used for a lot of different tasks and it’s important to know how to use it.

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